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Some process modelling references from bibliographic databases

Note: Authors and titles are linked to a blind AltaVista search.

  1. Al-Ashaab-AHS; Young-RIM ( 1997 ). Modelling manufacturing process information using EXPRESS , Concurrent-Engineering:-Research-and-Applications. vol.5, no.1; March 1997; p.27-35 .

    A critically important aspect of concurrent engineering is to ensure that the most appropriate information is available, early in the design process, to support design decision making. The authors of this paper consider that future software systems can be of particular benefit to concurrent engineering by providing such information support. Two complementary areas of information, product and manufacturing process information, have been identified as necessary to support the design process. The authors have explored the representation of manufacturing process information, within a manufacturing model, to support design decision making. The paper discusses issues relating to the general structure of manufacturing process modelling and examines the use of the information modelling language EXPRESS in defining the content of a manufacturing model. Work performed by the authors in building a manufacturing model of the injection moulding process is presented, the problems raised in building the model are addressed, and the solutions to them are discussed. The advantages and limitations found in using the EXPRESS language to define manufacturing model are discussed as is the use of activity modelling and object-oriented design techniques to complement the use of EXPRESS. In essence, the paper provides an insight into the current capability of information modelling tools and their application in the area of modelling manufacturing process information to provide concurrent engineering support.

  2. Anumba-CJ; Evbuomwan-NFO ( 1996 ). A concurrent engineering process model for computer-integrated design and construction , Information Technology in Civil and Structural Engineering Design. Inverleith Spottiswoode, Edinburgh, UK; 1996; v+151 pp. p.39-42 .

    The construction industry has witnessed a growing interest in the integration of design and construction. This is fuelled by the problems associated with the fragmented nature of the industry. This paper presents a new process model for computer-integrated design and construction which overcomes many of these problems. The new model is based on a concurrent engineering framework and provides, amongst other things, a formal mechanism for the analysis and prioritisation of clients' requirements.

  3. Atsumi-R ( 1993 ). A social human activity model as an information infrastructure system , IFIP-Transactions-B-(Applications-in-Technology). vol.B-14; 1993; p.171-82 .

    The best solution in describing complicated actual business work is to find out a simple fundamental principle and to describe it using this principle. The author has searched this fundamental principle in actual social human activities, and proposes a model named a social human activity model. This social human activity model employs orders as unique objects to be processed, and consists of units of a unique structure named an order cell, the internal structure of which has a human protocol of a multi-layer structure giving a framework. This social human activity model is expected to be able to integrate the domains and hierarchies of various social human activities including manufacturing activities by providing infrastructures and interfaces for them, because it is based on social human activities.

  4. Boehm-B ( 1989 ). What we really need are process model generators , Proceedings. 11th International Conference on Software Engineering (Cat. No.89CH2718-5). IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Washington, DC, USA; 1989; xix+406 pp. p.397 .

    A good many of the problems on software projects arise from mismatches between the process model used by the project and the project's real-world process drivers: budget, schedule, available commercial off-the-shelf software, customer standards, user mission or technology uncertainties, etc. The primary process modeling approach to date for avoiding these mismatches has been to try to develop the perfect process model: one which will work well for any combination of process drivers. The author argues that a good process model generator would be nearly as effective as the perfect process model, and much more likely to be achievable. Process model generator that is currently available, an extension of the Spiral Model which covers the definition and development of the software process as well as of the software product.

  5. Bonfatti-F; Monari-PD; Paganelli-P ( 1995 ). Modelling manufacturing resources and activities: an ontology , Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference, Computer Integrated Manufacturing. World Scientific, Singapore; 1995; 2 vol. xxv+1537 pp. p.101-8 vol.1 .

    Process representation constitutes a critical point in enterprise modelling, due to its role of a bridge between product representation and planning functions. The paper proposes the ontology underlying a new process modelling approach. This approach characterises an ESPRIT project aimed at providing small-medium enterprises with advanced computer-based tools supporting product and process design and planning activities. This ontology is based on a clear separation between abstract definitions of product routings and the involved resources, and between general structural aspects of resources and product-dependent behaviours. Resource activities are modelled taking into account occupation over time and configuration constraints expressed as preand post-conditions.

  6. Bustard-DW; Lundy-PJ ( 1996 ). Integrating process modelling and soft systems analysis , Methods Integration. Proceedings of the Methods Integration Workshop. Springer-Verlag London, London, UK; 1996; .

    This paper describes and reflects on the experience of attempting to integrate process-oriented formal modelling with activity modelling in soft systems analysis. The work is part of a larger project at the University of Ulster to develop RACE, a new general purpose requirements engineering method for computing systems. Two distinctive characteristics of the integration approach used are that (i) formal modelling is offered as an optional facility, and so must be attractive; and (ii) the RACE method has been tailored to aid integration in support of (i). The paper explains the relevant parts of the RACE method and the progress made so far to link its activity models with formal process models in LOTOS. The benefits and limitations of this work are discussed and proposals for an improved, tighter integration outlined.

  7. Estublier-J; Dami-S ( 1998 ). About reuse in multi-paradigm process modelling approach , Proceedings. 10th International Software Process Workshop (Cat. No.96TB100220). IEEE Comput. Soc, Los Alamitos, CA, USA; 1998; ix+119 pp. p.63-5 .

    Process model reuse has become a hot topic in the process community. As far as we are concerned, reuse has found its origin within the practical framework of software quality improvement we are involved in as participants of the PERFECT project. The objective of this project is to define a conceptual approach (PERFECT Improvement Approach), in which process improvement is justified as a means towards product improvement, and is implemented through the concepts of goal-oriented measurement, learning, packaging of explicit experience and reuse. Reuse is therefore a main concern that must be made explicit and well formalized for all of the process aspects, i.e., product, activity, role and measurement aspects. While reuse of product, role and measurement models did not cause us much trouble (owing to the object-orientation of their representation), reusing activities has been rather problematic. The work reported in this paper emphasizes the main issues we encountered in our experience facing the problem of process reuse. Our experience has been acquired through the design, implementation and evaluation of two major versions of the APEL tool; a textual and graphical language for describing and enacting process models.

  8. Fincher-JA; MacKinnon-D ( 1990 ). The ISO edi conceptual model activity and its relationship to OSI , Library-Hi-Tech. vol.8, no.4; 1990; p.83-91 .

    The developing ISO edi conceptual model and its relationship to OSI are described. The term 'edi' contrasts with the familiar EDI (electronic data interchange) and its connotation to syntax-specific standards, such as X12 and EDIFACT. The edi model will define common structures, services, and processes that X12 and EDIFACT could adopt. OSI is of interest to edi because of its potential services to help enable 'open edi'-global interoperability, across EDI functional groups. A sidebar describes the CCITT standard X.edi and its use of OSI services.

  9. Fischer,-Martin; Froese,-Thomas ( 1994 ). Integration through standard project models. In: Joint CIB Workshops on Computers and Information in Construction. , , Montreal, Canada: Institute for Research in Construction. , p.189-205 .

    Integration of data and knowledge among project participants andtheir computer applications holds the promise to improve the quality and efficiency of the project delivery process in the AEC industry. Wepropose that integration can be achieved by sharing a standard project model. In this paper, we describe such models. We summarize two research projects that developed and used shared project models and we outline essential characteristics of these models.

  10. Gopal,-S.; Smith,-T.R. ( 1990 ). Human way-finding in an urban environment - a performance analysis of a computational process model. , Environment-and-planning-A , v.22, no.2, p.169-191 , ISBN/ISSN ISSN: 0308-518X .

  11. Gray-C; Coles-E ( 1988 ). A predictive model of the building design process , Fourth International Symposium on Robotics and Artificial Intellegence in Building Construction. Technion, Haifa, Israel; 1988; 2 vol. (xxxv+vii+918) pp. p.442-6 vol.1 .

    In a complex construction industry, such as that in the UK, the building process is predominantly that of assembling components made off-site. This requires that all the components are detailed, which increases the number of drawings produced by the design team. The research described evaluates the hypothesis that: implicit within the technology of the project is a design task and that the tasks are linked together to give an interrelated network of the design process. An AI approach is being adopted in several ways to examine the problem. It is being used in the search for patterns of data flow to create the network and thus evaluate the hypothesis and also to build a network model of the design process. The final model will be linked to the construction activity model TIME, also written in Prolog 2, to form a model of the complete construction procurement task.

  12. Guarino-N ( 1995 ). Formal ontology, conceptual analysis and knowledge representation , International-Journal-of-Human-Computer-Studies. vol.43, no.5-6; Nov.-Dec. 1995; p.625-40 .

    The paper defends the systematic introduction of formal ontological principles in the current practice of knowledge engineering, to explore the various relationships between ontology and knowledge representation, and to present the recent trends in this promising research area. According to the "modelling view" of knowledge acquisition proposed by Clancey (1993), the modelling activity must establish a correspondence between a knowledge base and two separate subsystems: the agent`s behaviour (i.e. the problem-solving expertise) and its own environment (the problem domain). Current knowledge modelling methodologies tend to focus on the former sub-system only, viewing domain knowledge as strongly dependent on the particular task at hand: in fact, AI researchers seem to have been much more interested in the nature of reasoning rather than in the nature of the real world. Recently, however, the potential value of task-independent knowledge bases (or "ontologies") suitable for large scale integration has been underlined in many ways. We compare the dichotomy between reasoning and representation to the philosophical distinction between epistemology and ontology. We introduce the notion of the ontological level, intermediate between the epistemological and the conceptual levels discussed by Brachman (1979), as a way to characterize a knowledge representation formalism taking into account the intended meaning of its primitives. We then discuss some formal ontologic distinctions which may play an important.

  13. Heinonen-R; Tommila-T ( 1994 ). Integrated information model for process control and management , Integration of Process Design and Control (IPDC '94) IFAC Workshop. Elsevier, Oxford, UK; 1994; vii+251 pp. p.179-84 .

    A systematic framework for modeling process management and process control is needed to facilitate communication management and reuse of the knowledge gained during the different phases of the plant life cycle. The integrated information model defines concepts by which the process goals can be transformed into a systematic description of process control system functions. It enables also design automation of some parts of the design process. The information model has been defined in accordance with the application protocol specifications of the STEP standardization activities.

  14. Hong-Chao-Zhang; Mallur-S ( 1994 ). An integrated model of process planning and production scheduling , International-Journal-of-Computer-Integrated-Manufacturing. vol.7, no.6; Nov.-Dec. 1994; p.356-64 .

    Functional integration has taken the foreground in current manufacturing system development. Due to the fact that many of the functions in a manufacturing system are developing without a sense of integration, it becomes necessary that more importance be given to the integration of functions than the individual development of the functions itself. Process planning and job-shop scheduling are the two main information generators on the shop floor. Most of the current shop floor decisions are taken by the two functions without any feedback from each other. This leads to a situation wherein most of the created process plans become infeasible. This infeasibility leads to a unproductive shop floor. In this paper the authors propose an integrated model for process planning and job-shop scheduling. This approach can lead to more structured decision making on the shop floor and hence the creation of feasible plans.

  15. Inoue-K; Watanabe-A; Iida-H; Torii-K ( 1994 ). Modeling method for management process and its application to CMM and IS0 9000-3 , Proceedings. Third International Conference on the Software Process. Applying the Software Process (Cat. No.94TH8001). IEEE Comput. Soc. Press, Los Alamitos, CA, USA; 1994; ix+187 pp. p.85-98 .

    Many kinds of software development processes have been modeled and actually described. However, most of those models and descriptions focus on manufacturing activities, such as editing and testing. In this paper, we study management activities in software development. We present a simple model for management activities, and propose a method to structure management processes using this method. The key of this method is that a simple manufacturing process is set out as a basis process, and management activities are added and embedded into it. Also, the process descriptions are categorized into four granularity classes. Using this method, we have actually modeled and described the quality management frameworks CMM (Capability Maturity Model) and ISO 9000-3. The obtained descriptions gave us intuitive overviews of those frameworks, and we could easily understand how to introduce those frameworks. Several statistics are obtained from those descriptions, and similarities and differences between CMM and ISO 9000-3 are studied based on these results.

  16. Karhu; Keitila; Lahdenpera; BVesa; BMatti; BPertti ( 1997 ). Construction process model. , , No.1845 , ISBN/ISSN 951-38-5131-1 .

    The study has modelled the overall construction process systematically creating a generic present-state model that covers the design and construction of a building project. The main focus has been on the functions and flows of the process.

  17. Kay-MH; Rivett-PJ; Walters-TJ ( 1992 ). The Raleigh activity model: integrating versions, concurrency, and access control , Advanced Database Systems. 10th British National Conference on Databases. BNCOD 10 Proceedings. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany; 1992; x+260 pp. p.175-91 .

    Raleigh is an object-oriented database system being developed to support applications in software engineering (a dictionary or repository system) and in system management (a system configuration database). The authors describe Raleigh's activity model. The activity model provides a tightly-integrated solution to the requirements for version control, concurrency control, and access control.

  18. Kim,-J-J.; Ibbs,-C.W. ( 1995 ). Work-package process model for piping construction. , ASCE-Journal-of-Construction-Engineering-and-Management , v.121, no.4, p.381-387 .

    Application of the work packaging concept to the construction ofpiping systems for petrochemical plants

  19. Kraiem-N ( 1997 ). Use of the process meta-model to describe requirements engineering , Proceedings. Third IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (Cat. No.97TB100168). IEEE Comput. Soc, Los Alamitos, CA, USA; 1997; xi+253 pp. p.13-21 .

    Information System Engineering has made the assumption that an Information System is supposed to capture some excerpt of the real world history and hence has concentrated on modelling. Very little attention has been paid to the conceptual modeling process. However the emphasis on system modelling is shifting to process modeling. The particular Requirements Engineering (RE) process modelling approach being presented in this paper advocates the capture of the history of RE artifacts. In this paper, we present an approach for defining a way of working providing guidelines for the development of information systems. This way of working is defined as an instance of the NATURE meta-model. Therefore, it consists in the execution of different types of related contexts, namely, a choice based context, followed by some plan or executive based contexts, depending on the decisions made. We propose to view the process of modelling domain knowledge as a decision based process, as suggested by the process theory developed at the University of Paris Sorbonne.

  20. Lehne-MG; Wollert-J ( 1992 ). Integrated process and product modeling in shipbuilding industry-why and how , IFIP-Transactions-B-(Applications-in-Technology). vol.B-2; 1992; p.289-303 .

    The shipbuilding environment is a one-of-a-kind production environment. This environment needs adequate tools and methods to support it. Some modelling applications from European shipbuilding R&D projects are discussed from the perspective of the integrated product and process modelling approach. The projects are: NEUTRABAS (Neutral Database for Complex Multifunctional Systems) which explore a broad application field of product information for ship steel structure and outfitting systems, ROCOCO (Real Time Monitoring and Control of Construction Site Manufacturing) which develops a CIM application and demonstrates this application within the pipe outfitting environment of a ship berth construction site, and MARIN-ABC (Marine Industry Applications to Broadband Communication) which demonstrates new applications and services in the maritime transportation business based on future mobile satellite networks.

  21. Luiten-B; Tolman-F ( 1991 ). Project information integration for the building and construction industries , Computer Applications in Production and Engineering. Proceedings of the Fourth International IFIP TC5 Conference on Computer Applications in Production and Engineering: Integration Aspects, CAPE '91. North-Holland, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 1991; xvi+790 pp. p.469-76 .

    The paper presents a conceptual model to be used as a kernel for project information integration in the building and construction industries. The model, called BPM (building project model), integrates three classes of information: process information; product information; and resource information. The BPM follows the object-oriented paradigm, so information is data plus procedures.

  22. Maropoulos-PG; Bradley-HD ( 1994 ). An object oriented process modeller for concurrent engineering environments , CISS. First Joint Conference of International Simulation Societies Proceedings. SCS, San Diego, CA, USA; 1994; xvii+816 pp. p.430-4 .

    A process modelling method has been developed for use in concurrent engineering environments. The modeller is based on object oriented programming techniques using a proprietary system shell. It allows the rapid simulation of process planning options to bring process considerations to the fore in the early stages of product development. An object oriented classification of processes has been developed that incorporates procedures for determining costs and production times for each class. Further classifications have also been developed with regard to the production machines and the product itself. The aggregate process plans are then created by linking the process, machines and product classes dynamically and applying process planning methods and machine capability considerations. The testing of the modeller provided evidence of its capability to rapidly assess the manufacturing implications of various design options.

  23. Mertins-K; Sussenguth-W; Jochem-R ( 1991 ). Integrated information modelling for CIM: an object-oriented method for integrated enterprise modelling , Computer Applications in Production and Engineering. Proceedings of the Fourth International IFIP TC5 Conference on Computer Applications in Production and Engineering: Integration Aspects, CAPE '91. North-Holland, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 1991; xvi+790 pp. p.315-23 .

    Today the modelling of an enterprise is enabled by various methods which are used for different purposes and views upon the enterprise. Using an object-oriented approach the Integrated Enterprise Modelling (TEM) concept will integrate different modelling views in one consistent manufacturing enterprise model and will provide a modelling base for construction of an enterprise model from a user's point of view. It will lead the user from a general CIM architecture given by predefined model structures to a particular model and architecture of the system support in his own manufacturing enterprise, which are the essential tasks towards a enterprise wide and integrative usage of information technology. Therefore the basic constructs like object class structure and a related process description method via generic activity model will be presented. The kernel and the main views of a manufacturing enterprise model will be derived. An example using the IEM concept for the specific view of CIM planning and introduction will clarify the main features of the concept.

  24. Moreno-M; Rolland-C; Souveyet-C ( 1994 ). A generic approach to support a way-of-working definition , Advanced Information Systems Engineering. 6th International Conference, CAiSE '94. Proceedings. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany; 1994; xl+420 pp. p.367-79 .

    Information system engineering has made the assumption that an information system is supposed to capture some excerpt of the real world history and hence has concentrated on systems modelling. Very little attention has been paid to the conceptual modelling process. However the emphasis on system modelling is shifting to process modelling. The particular process modelling approach presented advocates the definition of a way-of-working (i.e. process models) to control and guide developers. The paper introduces a classification of the various kinds of evolution of objects and presents a decision-oriented process meta model to structure ways-of-working. It also describes some guidelines, related to the classification of object evolutions, to support method engineers in the task to define a way-of-working.

  25. OSullivan-D ( 1991 ). Project management in manufacturing using IDEF/sup 0/ , International-Journal-of-Project-Management. vol.9, no.3; Aug. 1991; p.162-8 .

    The failure of some newly installed manufacturing systems to live up to their preinstallation expectations has been blamed on a number of factors. One overriding factor is poor project planning. Traditionally, project planning in manufacturing has been facilitated through the use of Gantt charts. The paper discusses one approach to project planning that uses the structured methodology IDEF/sup 0/ to model the development process and perform many project-planning activities that are normally left out when traditional planning techniques are used. IDEF/sup 0/is a graphical modelling methodology that was developed for systems design and is now used widely in manufacturing for activity modelling. In the paper, IDEF/sup 0/ is used for project planning and scheduling, as well as some other manufacturing project-related issues. The technique helps in the creation of overlapping time schedules and in the tracking of resource requirements. It also helps with issues such as process variables, decision tracking, and process constraints affecting project activities. The IDEF/sup 0/ approach not only presents a common perspective on project implementation for the various people involved, but also, and very importantly in the context of manufacturing, helps with keeping track of project goals and objectives.

  26. Ong-NS; Lim-LEN ( 1993 ). Activity-based cost-modelling procedures for PCB assembly , International-Journal-of-Advanced-Manufacturing-Technology. vol.8, no.6; 1993; p.396-406 .

    Accurate product cost estimation is important in decisions which involved the selection of the least-cost design among alternative designs and the economic feasibility of a product. An accurate cost-estimating procedure would include the cost of materials and all activities that incur cost. This paper presents the development of cost models for printed circuit board (PCB) assembly which will take into consideration activities that incur cost owing to complexity, volume and batch size of PCB manufactured. All activities are allocated into three level bases and they are unit-level cost, batch-level cost and product-level cost. The cost of assembling one PCB is the summation of all these three costs. A case example is presented to illustrate the application of the models developed.

  27. Oren-TI; King-DG ( 1994 ). Computer-aided systems technology for CAD environments: complexity issues and a repository-based approach , Computer Aided Systems Theory - EUROCAST '93. Third International Workshop on Computer Aided Systems Theory Proceedings. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany; 1994; ix+449 pp. p.131-6 .

    Design is a model-based activity and is essential in any engineering field. Computer-aided design (CAD) can benefit from computer-aided systems technology (CAST) since systems theories on which CAST is based on provide powerful bases to tackle complexity issues as well as modelling and model processing formalisms. In computerization, another type of complexity, tool interface complexity arises. For a system where n software tools communicate, the order of the interface complexity is n/sup 2/ which may become unmanageable. With the use of a repository, the tool interface complexity is reduced to n. The article describes an example repository-based CAST-CAD environment which uses finite state automata-based tools.

  28. Pugh,-Stuart ( 1986 ). Design activity models. Worldwide emergence and convergence. , Design-studies , v.7, no.3, p.167-173 , ISBN/ISSN ISSN: 0142-694X .

    This discussion paper was prompted by seeing the proceedings of the International Design Participation Conference. In particular, there seemed to be evidence of a convergence towards a design activity model which would be an acceptable basis for most, if not all, design professions. This topic is pursued here by, cross-referring from some of the Participation Conference papers to deductions made from the marineand general engineering fields. (-z-)

  29. Pun-L ( 1988 ). Activity-situation modelling approach for the design of technological decision-support systems , Proceedings of International Conference on Systems Science and Engineering (ICSSE'88). Int. Acad. Publishers, Beijing, China; 1988; xvi+922 pp. p.697-703 .

    In the framework of flexible manufacturing systems and computer integrated manufacturing and production, technological DSS play an important role. The development of an efficient methodology for technological DSS design is an urgent task. A modelling tool aiming to facilitate such developments is presented. First, the problematics are analysed in order to derive requirements on the modelling tool. Next, the basic elements of the proposed Activity-Situation Modelling Language (ASML) and the associate DSS design methodology are presented. Finally, some application examples are given.

  30. Radtke,-M.W.; Russell,-J.S. ( 1993 ). Project-level model process for implementing constructability. , ASCE-Journal-of-Construction-Engineering-and-Management , v.119, no.4, p.813-832 .

    Optimum use of construction knowledge and experience in planning, design, procurement and field operations

  31. Rharmaoui-A; Crosnier-A ( 1993 ). Design process modelling: an approach based on the knowledge representation , EDUGRAPHICS '93. First International Conference on Graphics Education. COMPUGRAPHICS '93. Third International Conference on Computational Graphics and Visualization Techniques. Combined Proceedings. Tech. Univ. Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 1993; ix+417 pp. p.255-63 .

    We present a novel approach for modelling a product and its design process. This approach provides a framework for representing the design activities, with a high level of abstraction, and for integrating the know-how and the knowledge of the different skills involved in the design. The intents of the designer are translated into design operations that are associated with functional requirements to be satisfied by the product. The design operations are represented by parameterized operations that are captured during the design process in a symbolic model representative of the design methodology. This model is interactively interpreted to build all the viewpoints of the product manipulated by the trades during the design and the fabrication. We especially put emphasis on the viewpoints corresponding to the three dimensional geometry. This approach provides companies with different ways of communicating by supporting multiple representations of the same product.

  32. Ruggia-R; Ambrosio-AP ( 1997 ). A toolkit for reuse in conceptual modelling , Advanced Information Systems Engineering. 9th International Conference, CAiSE'97 Proceedings. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany; 1997; xi+450 pp. p.173-86 .

    The paper proposes a toolkit for applying reuse in conceptual modelling. The main objective is to cope with the problems of complexity in the conceptual modelling activity. In a long term perspective this proposition intends to settle the basis for a larger application of reuse in information system development. While research in software reuse has revealed that the application of reuse in software development is extremely difficult, conceptual modelling appears as a more promising area because it manipulates simpler objects: conceptual schemas. The proposed toolkit provides reuse oriented services to KHEOPS database design environment. These services include: quality validation of reusable components; component selection from the repository; and new conceptual schema construction by customising and composing reusable ones. Reusable components consist of an extended entity relationship schema as well as other information like executable reuse guidelines.

  33. Sanvido,-Victor ( 1994 ). Penn State Computer Integrated Construction Research Program. In: Joint CIB Workshops on Computers and Information in Construction. , , Montreal, Canada: Institute for Research in Construction. , p.394-400 .

    This paper introduces the Penn State University CIC Research Program and its philosophy. The primary focus of the program is to model the processes and information required to provide a facility. Given these models one can then define and develop better computer tools to integrate the building process. The Integrated Building Process Model (IBPM) was developed as a basic model of the essential functions to manage, plan, design, construct, and operate a facility. Using this model as a basis, an information architecture comprising several categories of information required to support the process was defined. These elements describe the process, the product, the process control elements, the feedback, and the constraints under which the subject facility is provided. Several projects currently being developed to illustrate theintegration of these models from a single user's perspective are presented.

  34. Sanvido,-Victor-E.; Kumara,-Soundar; Kamarthi,-Sagar-K.; Khayyal,-Sari-A. (). A top down information architecture to integrate the building process. In: Subject G, Managing projects. , , p.424-435, .

    This paper develops a need for an informatiom architecture to integrate the processes and subsequent software used throughout the lifeof the building. As a first step, it describes a process model of thefunctions required to provide a facility to the end user. This process model implies that the proposed information architecture must support the life cycle process, effectively capture knowledge, and act as anintegrator of industry accepted decision making tools. Finally, a knowledge based approach to implementing the information architecture is proposed. (author abstract)

  35. Sanvido,-Victor; Khayyal,-Sari; Guvenis,-Moris; Norton,-Kevin; Hetrick,-Mike; Chung,-Eun; Al-Muallem,-Mohammed (). Information requirements for an integrated building process model. In: Subject G, Managing projects. , , p.412-423, .

    This paper presents a model that defines all the essential activities required to provide an operational facility to the end user. Thelack of common definitions for the industry highlights the need for acommon model. Criteria for the selection of a modeling tool were developed and IDEF(subscript 0) was selected. The model titled "Provide Facility" is presented in three levels of detail. The five major subfunctions of the model are defined asmanage, plan, design, construct, and operate the facility. The model was analyzed and similar elements weregrouped into those specific to the product and the process. Practicalapplications ofthis model as an information system design tool are presented. (author abstract)

  36. Sanvido-VE; Kumara-S; Ham-I ( 1989 ). A top-down approach to integrating the building process , Engineering-with-Computers. vol.5, no.2; Spring 1989; p.91-103 .

    Many computer-aided tools have been developed to assist designers, engineers, and managers with specific well-defined functions, yet they are not well integrated. The authors develop the need for an information architecture to integrate the processes and subsequent software used throughout the life of a building. It then defines a process model of the functions required to provide a facility to the end user, namely, managing, planning, designing, constructing, and operating the facility. This process model implies that the proposed information architecture must support the life-cycle process, effectively capture knowledge, and act as an integrator of industry accepted decision-making tools. Finally, a knowledge-based approach to implementing the information architecture is proposed.

  37. Songer,-A.D. ( 1994 ). Process model for public sector design-build planning. , ASCE-Journal-of-Construction-Engineering-and-Management , v.120, no.4, p.857-874 .

    Design-build contracting is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to traditional contracting techniques in the public sector

  38. Steele-RA; Osguthorpe-GC; Siddiqi-JI ( 1997 ). A user-centred approach to groupwork systems development , Design of Computing Systems: Cognitive Considerations. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International '97). Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 1997; 2 vol. (xxvi+879+xxviii+1027) pp. p.77-80 vol.1 .

    It is recognised that many application areas now involve people working together using IT as an aid for sharing information and communicating with other workers in local proximity or over longer distances using networking technology. Such working environments present fresh challenges for analysts and designers, requiring new working methods which allow for user involvement in the system development life-cycle within a groupworking context. This paper reports on the experience of using a process-centred approach to the development of human-centred applications in a general hospital. In particular, the use of role activity diagrams (RAD) as an alternative to IDEF and other process modelling methods is briefly explored. Evaluation of RAD as a notation for representing the interaction between human agents, which is both accessible to clients and which may be readily mapped on to enactment technology is discussed. The overall objective of the work is to investigate the effectiveness of this approach in enabling business analysts and systems designers to work with each other and with systems users in a participative way to exploit shared information and distributed processing.

  39. Vernadat-F ( 1993 ). CIMOSA: enterprise modelling and enterprise integration using a process-based approach , IFIP-Transactions-B-(Applications-in-Technology). vol.B-14; 1993; p.65-79, 81-4 .

    Enterprise integration is mainly concerned with coordination, communication and cooperation between many concurrent business processes, involving humans and related entities (materials, information and resources). While Information Technology (IT) provides the enabling technology, enterprise integration also strongly depends on domain requirements and organisational structures. There is therefore the need for Open Systems Architectures for amalgamating the conceptual views, required technologies and various enterprise components into a comprehensive and modular framework covering the whole system life cycle. This paper discusses CIMOSA, an Open Systems Architecture for CIM developed as a series of ESPRIT Projects. CIMOSA provides an advanced enterprise modelling framework (for semantic unification), an integrating infrastructure (for systems and application integration) and a CIM system life cycle (framework for a structured methodology). At the heart of CIMOSA is an event-driven, process-based, enterprise modelling approach. It unifies in one model the functional aspects (i.e. the things to be done), the behavioural aspects (i.e. the flow of control), the resource aspects (i.e. the means required to perform the functionalities), the information aspects (i.e. the object flow) and the organisational aspects (i.e. decisions levels and decision centres) of the parts of a manufacturing enterprise to be considered for enterprise integration.

  40. Vernadat-FB ( 1994 ). Business process and enterprise activity modelling: CIMOSA contribution to a general enterprise reference architecture and methodology (GERAM) , ICARCV '94. The Third International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Computer Vision. Proceedings. Nanyang Technol. Univ, Singapore; 1994; 3 vol. xxxviii+2226 pp. p.78-82 vol.1 .

    CIMOSA is an open systems architecture for CIM developed by the ESPRIT Consortium AMICE. It is based on a three stage enterprise modelling approach (for business requirements definition, system design specification and implementation description). It enforces the genericity and reusability principles by means of generic building blocks and partial models to build particular models. It structures CIM systems as sets of distributed cooperative agents (called functional entities) linked by an integrating infrastructure to timely execute the non-deterministic concurrent business processes of manufacturing enterprises. In this paper, we present the CIMOSA principles which must be considered in the design of a generic enterprise reference architecture and methodology (GERAM), and we discuss a modelling paradigm for GERAM to model enterprise activities and business processes enforcing: the principle of separation of enterprise behaviour and enterprise functionality to preserve organisational flexibility; and the principle of decoupling business processes from functional entities by means of functional operations to achieve management flexibility.

  41. Vernadat-FB ( 1995 ). Business process and enterprise activity modelling , 11th ISPE/IEE/IFAC International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future CARS and FOF`95. Univ. Tecnologica de Pereira, Pereira, Colombia; 1995; 2 vol. xiv+1147 pp. p.141-6 vol.1 .

    Business process and enterprise activity modelling plays a central role in enterprise modelling in the context of CIM. Business processes model enterprise behaviour while enterprise activities model enterprise functionality. In this paper, a formalism is presented to specify business processes and enterprise activities. The formalism makes use of behavioural rules derived from process algebra for structured processes and temporal logic for ill-structured processes.

  42. Vernadat-FB ( 1996 ). Enterprise integration: on business process and enterprise activity modelling , Concurrent-Engineering:-Research-and-Applications. vol.4, no.3; Sept. 1996; p.219-28 .

    Business process and enterprise activity modelling plays a central role in enterprise modelling in the context of CIM and enterprise integration. Business processes model enterprise behaviour while enterprise activities model enterprise functionality. In this paper, enterprise modelling and integration are first discussed. Then, a formalism to specify business processes and enterprise activities is presented. The formalism makes use of behavioural rules derived from process algebra for structured processes and temporal logic for semi-structured processes. The paradigm assumes that processes and their activities are executed by human or non-human agents, called functional entities, performing elementary actions called functional operations.

  43. Wong-EKC ( 1993 ). The use of process modelling and frameworks in implementing concurrent engineering: problems and prospects , Simulation in Concurrent Engineering. Proceedings of the 1993 ITEC Workshop on Concurrent Engineering. SCS, San Diego, CA, USA; 1993; vi+99 pp. p.84-93 .

    Concurrent engineering (CE) is an approach that aims to improve an organisation's product development process. There are two types of properly structured CE implementation methodologies available. Both follow the general process improvement paradigm called the Shewart-Deming cycle. It consists of basic steps of understanding or assessing the current process and finding areas for improvement and making recommendations. Once made, a set of recommendations are selected and put into practice. The final step is to repeat this cycle from the first step in order to understand the changes before making further improvements. The main differences between the two approaches lies in how the initial two steps of the cyclic paradigm are tackled. This work develops a generic-organisational process modelling methodology called the Process Modelling Cookbook, in order to explore its contribution as structured process modelling based CE implementation methodology. It also includes the investigation of its potential as a CE process modelling methodology.